Black, red, blue and other ink.
- Ink is typically a liquid or paste that is used to mark an object, typically paper or other writing or drawing surfaces.
- Ink started being used around 2500 BC, most notably by the Chinese and Egyptians for writing purposes, and they used nearly the same formula.
- Originally, ink was made from ash or soot, a liquid such as water or oil, and animal gelatin.
- Ink is typically applied using a quill, brush or most commonly, a pen, however ink is also used in printing, with especially designed inks used for inkjet printers.
- To prevent blurry edges and so that the ink would adhere to his newly invented printing press, Johannes Gutenberg invented a special oil-based ink in the 1400s.
- Ink is often toxic if swallowed, depending on the material and pigments that the ink is made from, causing headaches, skin irritation and damage to one’s nervous system.
- Inks often use up precious non-renewable oils and heavy metals, which both have a negative impact on the environment.
- Inks come in different consistencies, such as thick or thin, watery or paste like, in powder or solid form, and in different colours, such as black, yellow, green, red or blue.
- Inks are normally made from dyes, pigments or chemicals, and always consist of a colourant and a vehicle or binder which holds or suspends the colourant.
- India Ink was first made in China, although some of the ingredients were usually sourced from India, and usually consisted of lampblack and animal glue and was formed into sticks that were then moistened for use.
Bellis M, A Brief History of Writing Instruments, 2013, About.com, <http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa100197.htm>
Ink, 2013, Wikipedia, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ink>
A Short History of Ink, 2013, Stinky Ink, <http://www.stinkyinkshop.co.uk/blog/a-short-history-of-ink/>
Their actually quite old!
- Crayons are typically coloured sticks of wax used for drawing purposes, although sometimes are made from chalk or charcoal.
- Crayons are also known as wax crayons, and are usually made from petroleum paraffin wax and colour pigment.
- Since crayons aren’t messy, toxic, sharp, expensive and are colourful, they are a common media given to children to use for drawing or colouring pictures.
- Crayons are generally 8.9 cm (3. 5 inches) lengthwise, and often have a paper wrapper wrapped around them to help them break less easily.
- A W Faber Company, which were making crayons in the 1880s, was one of the first companies to produce wax crayons.
- Crayola, the leading brand of crayons in the world, started making crayons in 1903.
- Crayola has made over 133 different coloured crayons, some retired, and many special edition crayons.
- Some early French artists like Francois Clouet (1510-1572) and Nicholas L’angreau (1590-1666) used crayons as their medium.
- There have been over 300 official crayon manufacturing companies, although only a small amount exist now.
- Standard crayon colours are black, brown, blue, red, purple, orange, yellow and green.
Crayon 9 March 2013, Wikipedia, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crayon>
One of the most common inventions!
- The modern paper clip is a bendable, double oval, metal paper clip.
- There are many inventors of the paper clip but JohnVaaler of Norway is most notable for his patent in 1899.
- In 1896, Matthew Schooley invented a bent wire paper clip or holder.
- The paper clip was invented by several people in different countries around the same period of time.
- Of all the early inventors, John Vaaler’s paper clip looked most similar to the modern paper clip.
- Various designs and variations of the modern paper clip were invented from the period 1896-1950s.
- In 1958, paper clips were surveyed for their uses. Some of the results of the survey included: paper clips were used as toothpicks, fingernail and ear cleaners, fasteners for nylon, bras and blouses, tie clasps, chips and markers in games, chains and childish weapons.
- During World War II, the Norwegians wore paper clips to protest against the occupation of the Nazi.
- The largest paper clip was displayed in Oslo, Norway in 1989, and was made from iron, and was 7 metres (22 feet, 11 inches) long and weighed 602 kg (1327 pounds).
- The modern paper clip is thought to have originated from the company Gem Manufacturing Ltd in England.
Harrison, I 2004, The Book of Inventions, Cassell Illustrated, Great Britian