“Where there is love there is life.” – Mahatma Gandhi
- Mahatma Gandhi was an Indian political activist, a firm believer of nonviolent resistance, and the primary influence of India’s independence and freedom from Britain in 1947.
- The full name of Mahatma Gandhi is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, born on the 2 October, 1869, in India’s Porbandar, in Asia, and he has also been known as ‘Bapu’, ‘Gandhiji’, ‘Father of the Nation’, and ‘Father of India’, and the title ‘Mahatma’, meaning ‘great soul’ or similar, was first used in relation to him in 1914.
- Abiding by Indian tradition, Mahatma Gandhi married the similarly aged Kasturbai Makhanji at age thirteen years, in 1883 by an arranged marriage, and had five children, although only four boys survived, with the first child dying days after birth.
- Mahatma Gandhi studied law in London, in Europe’s England in 1888, returning to India in 1891 after graduation, but then moved to South Africa to work for an Indian trader group in 1893 as a legal representative, where he remained until moving back to India in 1915.
- While in South Africa, Mahatma Gandhi observed and experienced violent racism, and as a result rallied for the rights of Indians in the country, and when he returned home to India after more than 20 years, he began to campaign for his country’s independence.
- Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated by bullet at 78 years of age, on 30 January, 1948, by Nathuram Godse, a representative of a disagreeing Hindu fundamentalist group, in the area of Birla House, New Delhi in India, which was later renamed Gandhi Smriti and was transformed into a museum.
- While he studied many different religions, Mahatma Gandhi was mostly influenced by Hinduism and Jainism, and during his lifetime he wrote over 50,000 pages of literature, some of which was previously released, although the whole lot was published collectively by the government in India in the 1960s.
- Despite being nominated five times, Mahatma Gandhi was not awarded the Nobel Peace Prize during his lifetime, although the story of his life was adapted into the Academy Award winning film Gandhi (1982), starring Ben Kingsley as the main character.
- Since 2007, the 2nd October has been celebrated each year as the International Day of Non-Violence, in honour of Mahatma Gandhi, which is the Indian’s birthday, and also a public holiday in India, known as ‘Gandhi Jayanti’.
- Mahatma Gandhi was the subject of at least five failed assassinations, one of which is said to have been the derailing of a train a year and a half before his death.
These toothpaste facts are very hygienic.
- Toothpaste is a paste solution or powder used primarily to clean one’s teeth and gums.
- Toothpaste contains plaque and food removing chemicals; helps stop most mouth diseases; and helps to freshen one’s breath.
- Toothpaste typically cleans with a toothbrush aid, which spreads and rubs the paste.
- Toothpaste has a water content of 2o% to 42%, and generally contains fluoride that aids in preventing tooth decay; abrasives that help to remove plaque; and surfactants or detergents that help to clean the teeth.
- Toothpaste is commonly flavoured, often with peppermint, wintergreen or spearmint oil, although unflavoured versions are available, and toothpaste for sensitive teeth is also manufactured.
- Ancient Egyptians are said to have used powdered toothpaste as early as 5000 BC, and Ancient Romans and Greeks enhanced this formula with the addition of abrasives.
- The fluoride content in toothpaste can be poisonous if consumed in large amounts.
- A combination of a variety of ingredients have been used throughout the centuries to clean teeth, including a resin called ‘dragon’s blood’, burnt eggshells, hooves of an ox, pumice, oyster shells, earthenware, burnt snail shells, cuttlefish, brick, charcoal, chalk, burnt bread and honey.
- Modern style toothpaste is based on powders and pastes that were developed in the 1800s and early 1900s, that included the addition of fluoride, baking soda, soap and hydrogen peroxide.
- It is recommended that toothpaste and a toothbrush are used to clean teeth at least twice a day for maximum effect.
“You’re only given one little spark of madness. You mustn’t lose it” – Robin Williams
- Robin Williams was a prominent actor, comedian, screenwriter and film producer, that started acting in the early 1970s, continuing on until his death in 2014, and a significant component of his work was unscripted and improvised.
- Robin McLaurin Williams, or ‘Robin Williams’ as he was known, was born in Chicago in the United States state of Illinois, on 21 July, 1951, and he was the great, great grandson of governor Anselm J McLaurin from Mississippi.
- Robin Williams was nominated for and received numerous awards during his lifetime, gaining two Emmys, five Grammys, four Golden Globes, an Oscar for Best Supporting Actor in the film Good Will Hunting, and the Golden Globe Cecil B DeMille Award for ‘outstanding contributions to the world of entertainment’.
- Robin Williams died on 11 August, 2014, in California’s Marin County, in the United States, and despite being a well-loved actor, it is believed he hung himself after suffering from significant depression.
- Robin Williams attended New York’s Juilliard School and became successfully popular as an alien in 1978 on Happy Days, a television show, that launched his acting career and led to his leading role in the television series Mork and Mindy that ran from 1978 to 1982.
- Robin Williams has been featured in 80 films, including Popeye (1980), Good Morning, Vietnam (1987), Dead Poet’s Society (1989), Aladdin (1992), Mrs. Doubtfire (1993), Night at the Museum (2006) and Happy Feet (2006), and also made numerous television appearances.
- In 1993, Robin Williams had a dispute with The Walt Disney Company, due to the belief that the company broke their agreement of the use of his character, Genie in the marketing of the Aladdin film, in 1992.
- From the 1970s to 1980s, Robin Williams was addicted to drugs and alcohol, and after years of self-restraint, he resumed drinking alcohol in 2003, although later he attended rehabilitation to overcome his addiction.
- Robin Williams was married to Valerie Velardi from 1978 to 1988, Marsha Garces from 1989 to 2008 and Susan Schneider from 2011 until his death in 2014, and he had three children named Zachary, Zelda and Cody, born in the years of 1983, 1989 and 1991, respectively.
- Robin Williams enjoyed playing electronic games and was an avid cyclist and enthusiast, and in 2003 is said to have owned more than 50 bicycles.
Robin Williams, 2014, Bio, http://www.biography.com/people/robin-williams-9532797
Robin Williams, 2014, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robin_Williams
Multiple Sclerosis is an unavoidable and often invisible disease.
- Multiple sclerosis is a progressive disease that can affect the spinal cord, optic nerves and brain, brought about by lesions or scars from inflammation in those areas.
- The actual cause of multiple sclerosis is not known at this stage, but it is possibly caused by a virus or bacterial agent combined with a genetic tendency that causes immune problems, and smoking is said to increase the risk.
- Multiple sclerosis damage most likely occurs from the body’s immune cells attacking parts of the central nerve system.
- ‘Multiple sclerosis’ is also known as ‘MS’, ‘disseminated sclerosis’ and ‘encephalomyelitis disseminata’, and ‘sclerosis’ comes from the Greek word ‘skleros’ meaning ‘hard’.
- Those with multiple sclerosis typically have a few symptoms, but not generally numerous, that vary from person to person, and can including fatigue, eye problems, coordination issues, pain, speaking difficulties and malfunctioning sensations.
- There are four different types of multiple sclerosis, from most common to rarest, relapsing-remitting, primary-progressive, secondary-progressive (this has become less common due to new medications) and progressive-relapsing.
- Women are more than two times more likely to be affected by multiple sclerosis than men, while people of European descent are also more susceptible.
- There were roughly 2.5 million people in the world with multiple sclerosis in 2010, with the number of new cases rising by 4% annually.
- Multiple Sclerosis doesn’t have a known cure, although there are some medications and therapies that can stall symptoms of the disease.
- Multiple Sclerosis was first detailed as a disease by French Jean-Martin Charcot, a neurologist, in 1868.
Bibliography: Multiple Sclerosis, 2014, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_sclerosis
What is MS?, 2014, MS Queensland, http://msqld.org.au/about-ms/what-is-ms
“I pay no attention whatever to anybody’s praise or blame. I simply follow my own feelings.” – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a musician that helped shape the classical music era, and is commonly referred to as ‘Mozart’.
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born as the youngest of seven children, on 27 January, 1756, in Austria’s Salzburg, in Europe, to Leopold Mozart, a violinist, and Anna Maria Pertl, although Mozart was only one of their two children to survive past their first year.
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was baptised in the St. Rupert’s Cathedral, a Catholic church, as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, and was commonly called by various names throughout his life, and had a preference for the Latin word Amadeus, meaning ‘to love God’, as his middle name, rather than the Greek word ‘Theophilus’, that had the same meaning.
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was originally educated only by his father, and was skilled on the piano and violin and composing at five years of age.
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s first performance was in Munich, Germany, in the Prince-elector Maximilian III’s court at age six.
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was the official musician of the Salzburg Prince-Archbishop of the time, Hieronymus Colloredo, from 1773 to 1777, and later moved to Vienna, in Austria, in 1781.
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart married Constanze Weber on 4 August, 1782, and had six children; although only two survived past the age of one year.
- At 35 years old, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart died on 5 December 1791 in Vienna, Austria, after a period of illness, with his death cause unconfirmed.
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart significantly influenced the great classical musician Ludwig van Beethoven, although it is uncertain as to whether they met, and Mozart’s music has long been studied by musicians around the world, having influenced many.
- Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is said to have learnt 15 languages as the result of much travelling, and produced more than 600 works of music, in every genre of the day.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, 2014, Encyclopaedia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/395455/Wolfgang-Amadeus-Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, 2014, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolfgang_Amadeus_Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Composer, 2014, DSO Kids, http://www.dsokids.com/listen/by-composer/wolfgang-amadeus-mozart.aspx
Amazon: Mozart’s Music
“Rock and roll music, if you like it, if you feel it, you can’t help but move to it. That’s what happens to me. I can’t help it.” – Elvis Presley.
- Elvis Presley was a singer, actor and musician from America, who was very popular in the rock and roll genre.
- ‘Elvis Presley’ was also known as ‘the King of Rock and Roll’ and ‘The King’, and had the full name of ‘Elvis Aaron Presley’ and his middle name was originally spelt ‘Aron’.
- Elvis Presley was born on 8 January, 1935, in Mississippi’s Tupelo in the United States, as a twin, although his older identical brother was stillborn, making Elvis an only child.
- Elvis Presley had been a good singer since childhood, despite some people not liking his style, although bullying and shyness contributed to stage fright and failed grades for music.
- Elvis Presley first recorded himself in 1953, at Sun Records, trying to gain recognition, later forming a trio with Bill Black and Winfield ‘Scotty’ Moore brought together by Sun Record’s founder, Sam Phillips.
- Elvis Presley started to become popular in 1955 and his popularity grew until 1958 when he joined the US Army, but his producers kept his music coming and he was able to quickly slot back into his music career two years later, with a number one hit in 1960.
- Elvis Presley performed in genres of rock and roll, pop, rockabilly, R&B, gospel, country and blues, and was initially thought to be an African American by some who had only heard him, due to the style of his voice and music.
- Elvis Presley married Priscilla Wagner on 1 May, 1967, and they had a daughter, Lisa Marie, but divorced in 1973, and it was only a few years later that he died on 16 August, 1977, aged 42, in Tennessee’s Memphis, in the United States, prior to just starting a tour, likely due to heart attack that was possibly caused by drugs.
- Elvis Presley was entombed at Forest Hill Cemetery, Memphis, two days after his death, with 80,000 people lining the streets in the area, and he was later buried at his Graceland estate, also in Memphis, even though some believe Presley actually faked his death.
- Elvis Presley had 70 albums, more than 100 singles, featured in 33 films, achieved 90 gold album awards, a total of 77 platinum and multi-platinum album awards, and is the ‘best selling solo albums artist’ in the United States ever, and won three Grammy awards in his lifetime.
Elvis Presley, 2013, Bio.com, http://www.biography.com/people/elvis-presley-9446466
Elvis Presley, 2014, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elvis_Presley
Amazon: Elvis Presley’s Albums