These facts are as contagious as conjunctivitis.
- Conjunctivitis is also known as ‘pink eye’ and ‘madras eye’.
- Conjunctivitis is redness and swelling of the clear tissue that covers the eye, the conjunctiva, and the inside layer of the eyelids.
- There are four main types of conjunctivitis, bacterial conjunctivitis; viral conjunctivitis; allergic conjunctivitis; and chemical conjunctivitis.
- Along with eye redness and swelling, bacterial conjunctivitis usually includes a combined mucous and pus discharge, which can cause crusting around the eye, and a gritty or scratchy feeling in the eye, that usually affects both eyes, although it may begin in one.
- Virus caused conjunctivitis is usually a result of an infection from a common cold, and generally includes itchiness and a watery discharge from the eye, and may affect one or both eyes, and is usually left untreated.
- Allergy based conjunctivitis has similar symptoms to viral conjunctivitis, with eye itchiness and a watery discharge, but it is generally accompanied by other symptoms, like an itchy nose and sneezing, as in hay fever, or other symptoms associated with an allergy, and is usually treated with antihistamines if deemed necessary.
- Chemical induced conjunctivitis is cause by chemicals that enter the eye, which can include airborne chemicals like smoke and fumes, as well as chlorine from swimming pools and other chemicals that may have splashed in the eye, and flushing of the eye with water to remove the chemical is usually helpful.
- Bacterial and viral conjunctivitis is highly contagious and so extra care with hand washing and isolation from other people is important.
- Antibiotics can be used to treat bacterial conjunctivitis if the eye has not healed within five days, however they are not useful in treating other forms of conjunctivitis.
- Children under five years of age are most susceptible to getting conjunctivitis.
Conjuctivitis, 2010, The Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne, < http://www.rch.org.au/kidsinfo/fact_sheets/Conjunctivitis/>
Conjunctivitis, 2013, Wikipedia, < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conjunctivitis>
Toothbrush scares those germs.
- Toothbrushes are hygienic equipment used to rid teeth of food and bacteria.
- Toothbrushes, which come in different shapes, sizes and bristle textures, are usually hard plastic sticks with a head of nylon bristles, which are used to brush teeth.
- Sticks, twigs, feathers and quills were all early toothbrushes.
- The first use of bristles on toothbrushes was in China, around 619-907 AD.
- Toothbrushes were traded from China to Europe and became popular in the 1600s.
- Toothbrushes were first patented by H N Wadsworth in 1857.
- Some toothbrushes are electric and some toothbrushes have removable heads.
- Toothbrushes became common in America after World War II, after the American army taught their soldiers personal hygiene, including brushing their teeth daily.
- According to the Lemelson-MIT Invention Index, toothbrushes are the number one thing Americans can’t live with out.
- William Addis, an Englishmen, is said to be the first mass producer of toothbrushes, which were made from bone and animal hair in the 1780s, after he came up with the idea in prison.
Toothbrush 20 March 2013, Wikipedia, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toothbrush
Seel-ee-ak? Celiac or coeliac… they are the same thing.
- People with coeliac (pronounced seel-ee-ak) disease can’t consume gluten found in barley, rye and wheat, and most coeliacs also react to oats.
- One in five people affected by coeliac disease may not react to the gluten in oats.
- When those with coeliac disease consume gluten, it damages the small intestine (villi), so that nutrients aren’t absorbed properly.
- Coeliac disease is one of the only diseases that can’t be cured, but is easily treated via a gluten free diet.
- If coeliac disease is not treated, serious problems could occur like poor nutrition, infertility, cancer and diabetes.
Effects of Coeliac Disease (Inside Small Intestine)
- Symptoms of coeliac disease can include depression, behaviour, fatigue, weakness, easy bruising, skin rashes, bone and joint pains, and in children, failure to thrive, irritability and delayed growth, as well as other health problems. Sometimes no obvious symptoms are present.
- Those with coeliac disease, must be on a strict diet that has no gluten or any traces of gluten.
- Commonly, those with coeliac disease are lactose intolerant, although this often rectifies itself once a gluten free diet has commenced.
- Coeliac disease affects 1 in 100 Australians and 75% of people who have the disease do not know they have it.
- Coeliac disease vaccines are currently being developed in Melbourne, to help those affected by coeliac disease to consume gluten without damaging the small intestine.
Coeliac Disease 2011, Coeliac Australia, <Http://www.coeliac.org.au/coeliac-disease/index.html>
Hic, Hic, Hic – got the hiccups ey?
- Hiccups are known as ‘Synchronous Diaphragmatic Flutter’ or ‘singultus’ in medical terms.
- Hiccups or singultus comes from the Latin word ‘singult’ which means ‘the act of catching ones breath while one is sobbing’.
- Hiccuping can be caused by quick eating, soft drinks, alcohol, dry breads, some spicy foods and laughing.
- Hiccups repeat many times a minute.
- The hiccups can be self-cured easily.
Sound Clip: Hiccup
- American Charles Osborne had hiccups for 68 years (1922- February 1990) and won a Guinness World Record.
- Only mammals can have hiccups.
- Hiccups are also commonly known as hiccoughs.
- An arc reflex involving the diaphragm and glottis make the ‘hic’ noise.
- Hiccups are normally only treated for long, continuous durations.
Hiccup 12 November 2012 , Wikipedia, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiccup>