Scrub-a-dub dub with the soap.
- Soap is a solid bar or liquid solution that is used to wash, bathe or clean and is used widely in the textile industry for various tasks.
- Soap is typically made using animal or vegetable fats or oils which is mixed with an alkaline formula like caustic soda.
- Soap cleans by causing things that are insoluble, like small bacteria, chemicals, dirt or the like, to become soluble, and wash away with water.
- Soap was used and possibly invented in 2800 BC by Ancient Babylonians, and later by the Ancient Egyptians, who used animal and vegetable oils.
- ‘Soap’ is derived from the Latin word ‘sapo’, which is the name of a fictitious mountain in the area of Rome which is said to be associated with soap.
- Industrial soap production occurred in the 1450s to 1500s, in France and as early as the 1200s the process was industrialised in the Middle East.
- Liquid soap started being produced in the 1800s, and was patented in 1865 by William Shepphard, the use of which became more practical than typical bars.
- Soap is typically made by heating up particular oils or fats, pouring off waste liquid and setting the mixture into moulds.
- Throughout history, soap has been used to treat skin conditions and with the addition of other plant materials, to dye hair.
- Soap is one of the main ingredients in grease that is used for lubrication purposes.
Soap, 2013, Wikipedia, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soap>
Soap Facts: Interesting and Fun Facts, n.d, Soap History, <http://www.soaphistory.net/soap-facts/>
Blood is thicker than water…
- Blood is a liquid solution that every animal or person needs that transports oxygen, nutrients for cells, and body waste in the body.
- Blood contains mainly 55% plasma, which is mainly water, white blood cells and 45% red blood cells.
- Blood is pumped throughout the body by the heart muscle, and blood vessels burst if they are hurt or cut, which is called ‘bleeding’.
- Often blood terms use the prefixes ‘haemo-’ or ‘haemato-’, which comes from the Greek word for blood, ‘haima’, such as ‘haematology’, the study of blood.
- Blood makes up 7 to 8% of the weight of a human’s body and is little denser than water.
- Human blood is always red, due to the protein haemoglobin, although animal’s blood can be blue or green, but deoxygenated blood is a darker red, even though some people think it is blue, which is the way it is often depicted in diagrams.
- ‘Blood’ comes from the word ‘bluot’, which is an Old High German word for blood.
- A healthy adult has approximately 5 litres (1.3 gallons) of blood circulating in their body, although their will generally be less blood in someone who is dehydrated, since the water in the fluid is diminished.
- Blood forms in the bone marrow, typically in the leg bones in children and in the spine and central bones in adults.
- Only a few animals drink blood for nutrients, and these include female mosquitoes, ticks, leeches and vampire bats.
Blood, 2013, Kids Health, <http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body_basics/blood.html>
Blood, 2013, Wikipedia, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood>
Brrrrr. Hypothermia is cold.
- Hypothermia is when the temperature of a human body falls from its usual temperature of around 37°C (98.6°F) to below 35°C (95°F).
- People are more susceptible to hypothermia if they are quite young or quite old, sick with permanent medical conditions, if they have consumed alcohol or drugs or if they are unusually tired.
- Hypothermia is due to the body losing heat without being able to replace it, and can be caused by exposure to cold water or cold weather below 10°C (50°F), or not eating or drinking enough in cold conditions.
- Between 1999 to 2004, an average of 647 people died each year in the United States due to hypothermia.
- Hypothermia is often caused from not wearing enough warm clothes in cold conditions, and often leads to frostbite due to the brain keeping the vital organs, including the brain, warm.
- Sleepiness, weakness, pale skin, shivering uncontrollably, confusion, slow breathing, slurred speech and slow heart beating are among the signs of hypothermia.
- Victims of hypothermia are often found motionless, since the body cannot look after itself properly, often making people think they are dead.
- After being exposed to hypothermia, victims should not be placed in or near very hot substances such as heat lamps or hot water to warm them up, but rather slow indirect heat like the warmth from another person is helpful.
- Victims of hypothermia can die if exposed to severe temperatures and have no medical help, and if the person moves around it can cause a heart attack because it will make their body temperature colder.
- People who are suffering from hypothermia will sometimes remove their layers of clothing, which makes their situation worse, so this urge, known as ‘paradoxical undressing’, needs to be resisted.
Hypothermia, 2010, Medline Plus, < http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000038.htm>
Hypothermia, 2013, Better Health Channel, < http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Hypothermia>
Stop the pain with the paracetamol.
- Paracetamol is a medical drug, also known as ‘acetaminophen’, and its chemical name is ‘N-acetyl-p-aminophenol’.
- Paracetamol is an analgesic and antipyretic, which means it is used to relieve pain and lower fevers.
- Paracetamol was first used by German physician, Joseph von Mering, on his patients in 1887, after it was created by Harmon Northrop Morse, an American chemist, ten years earlier.
- Paracetamol usually comes in the form of a 500 mg tablet or capsule, but can also come in a liquid form, and is usually taken every four to eight hours to keep pain or fever reduced until symptoms subside.
- An over dose of paracetamol can lead to liver or kidney damage or stomach problems, and nearly all drug overdoses in the main English speaking countries are from paracetamol.
- Paracetamol was not commonly used for 60 years after it was first used in 1887, because another substance, phenacetin, was more widely promoted.
- Paracetamol is considered safe for most people of all ages, although people who have liver problems should talk to their doctor before taking any.
- Some people may have side effects of stomach pains or skin rash after taking paracetamol, and others can be allergic to paracetamol, with symptoms of hives, swelling of the face and/or difficulty in breathing.
- In 1947, paracetamol was fully investigated and tested for its suitability for patients, and then its use was promoted when it was first marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co, in the United States of America, although it wasn’t until the 1970s that it became a widely used drug.
- Originally, paracetamol required a prescription for its purchase from pharmacies, but today prescriptions are rarely needed, and it is commonly available in supermarkets, in different branded packets.
Paracetamol, 2013, Wikipedia, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paracetamol>
Patient Information on Paracetamol, 2011, Australian Rheumatology Association, <http://arthritisnsw.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/paracetamol230811.pdf>
Without lungs what would you be?
- The lungs are a pair of organs that helps with breathing found in your thorax or chest, that sit side by side and are protected by your ribs.
- The job of the lungs is to replace the carbon dioxide in our bloodstream with oxygen, by taking it from the air around us.
- Although the lungs look identical, they are different as the right has three lobes and is a little larger than the left ,which only has two lobes.
- Lungs are a spongy tissue which contract and expand, and a single lung is about 1.1kg (2.4 pounds) in weight.
- Bronchi and bronchioles are tubular shaped branches that transport the air from the windpipe, or trachea, in the lungs, and if these ‘branches’, from both of the lungs, were placed side by side, the distance covered would reach approximately 2,400km (1,500 miles) in length.
- At the end of the bronchioles are groups of air sacs called alveoli, and humans have between 300 and 500 million of them in their lungs.
- It is possible for people to live with only one lung, and whilst their function maybe a little limited due to the amount of air that can be inhaled and exhaled at any one time, they can generally lead a normal life.
- It takes about 10 seconds for a newborn baby to inflate its lungs and take its first breath, and a typical human breathes 15 to 25 times a minute.
- A common lung disease is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with the main symptom being shortness of breath, which is most commonly caused by smoking, and can’t be cured but quitting smoking, healthy diets and cleaner air are some of the treatments.
- Cancer, asthma, pneumonia, emphysema, bronchitis, apnea and lung poisoning are all common lung diseases or problems.
Freudenrich C, How Your Lungs Work, 2013, How Stuff Works, < http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/human-biology/lung.htm>
Human Lung, 2013, Wikipedia, < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_lung>
Lung Disease & Respiratory Health Center, 2013, WebMD, < http://www.webmd.com/lung/picture-of-the-lungs>