Chlorine’s great importance and versatility makes it quite the chlorified chemical.
- Chlorine is a fundamental element of chemistry denoted by the atomic symbol ‘Cl’ and the number 17.
- Out of the world’s most common crust elements, chlorine is listed as number twenty-one, but it generally exists in an impure form, such as in common salt.
- At 0°C (32°F) and 100 kPa of pressure, chlorine can be found in a gaseous form, and the gas is a green-yellow colour, while the liquid form tends to be more yellow in colour.
- Although part of the common salt compound (sodium chloride) was commonly used by ancient civilisations, chloride in its pure gaseous form was first known in 1630 by Jan van Helmot, a chemist from the Southern Netherlands, however this finding was originally considered unimportant.
- The chemist most commonly credited with the discovery of chlorine is Carl Wilhelm Scheele from Sweden, in 1774, however he suggested the chemical was a compound (with multiple individual elements) rather than an element itself.
- Chlorine as an element is typically extracted from brine, sodium chloride (common salt) dissolved in water, using an electric current.
- It was only in 1809, that newly published results of an experiment speculated that chlorine was its own element, as observed by the French chemists Joseph Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jacques Thēnard; and the element was later isolated and named in 1810 as ‘khlōros’, a Greek word referring to the colour green, by Humphry Davy, a chemist from England, and he changed this term soon after, to the one we use today.
- Chlorine is commonly used for disinfectants, especially for pools; to purify water for drinking; and to create dyes, plastics, insecticides, and house cleaning chemicals like bleach, among others.
- Around the 1830s, various compounds were created using chlorine, to remove the smell of dead flesh in hospitals.
- Chlorine was used by the Germans during World War I, as a lethal gas that damaged respiratory organs, eyesight and skin.
Condensation – keeping dryness on its toes.
- Condensation is a phenomenon where the moisture in the air, is converted from its gaseous water form to a liquid form.
- Condensation will most often occur when vapour is cooled or condensed into a density that cannot sustain the entirety of water molecules, and thus must be dispersed as a liquid.
- The creation of clouds, as described in the water cycle, is a result of the process of condensation.
- When the dewpoint air temperature (the temperature at which the water vapour will change to liquid when it is cooled) surrounding an object is warmer than or equal to an object’s temperature, condensation can form on the surface of the object.
- The condensation process provides the main source of water for a variety of both fauna and flora.
- Some structures, sometimes known as ‘condensers’, have been designed to collect and harvest condensation as a water source, and these include fog collectors or fences, and air or aerial wells.
- Condensation can be problematic in buildings due to its tendency to cause corrosion, mould, rotting, and other forms of structure weakening, due to the moisture.
- Warmer outside air temperatures, will typically decrease the amount of condensation, as generally more water vapour can be contained in warm air.
- In buildings, air movement, through the use of fans, air conditioners, or open windows, can decrease the amount of condensation.
- Dehumidifiers are available, and they are designed to be used inside buildings to remove moisture in the air, and this helps to prevent condensation.
Don’t lose your senses under the smell of sulfur!
- Sulfur is an element that is part of the periodic table, scientifically notated as ‘S’, while 16 is its atomic number.
- The cosmos’ tenth most common element is sulfur, which can be found naturally in stars of massive size, in meteorites, and in volcanic gases.
- Sulfur, also known and spelled as ‘sulphur’, is coloured yellow in its purist form; though it changes to a red coloured liquid upon reaching a heat of approximately 200° Celsius (392° Fahrenheit).
- Originally, sulfur was mined in a somewhat pure form or extracted from pyrite, however in modern times the element is extracted from fossil fuels such as petroleum.
- The identification and use of sulfur has been present throughout many ancient civilisations, including Egypt, India, Greece and China, and the element was often used for primitive medical purposes.
- Fertilisers, pesticides, cellophane, paper bleach, rayon, detergents, as well as preservatives purposed for dried fruit, all often make use of sulfur.
- Sulfur is relatively safe for humans in its elemental form, however when combined with other elements, it can cause harm through breathing it in a gas form, or on contact with skin.
- Compounds with strong smells, typically those unpleasant, generally consist of sulfur; including the odour of rotten eggs, the spray of skunks, and garlic.
- Sulfur melts at 388.36 Kelvin (115.21° Celsius or 239.38° Fahrenheit); boils at 717.8 Kelvin (444.6° Celsius or 832.3° Fahrenheit); and produces a flame of a blue colour.
- Sulfur has been used as an ingredient in multiple medicines, particularly those to cure skin diseases, due to the element’s ability to kill bacteria.
Tickle me pink! Is that really another colour?
- Pink is a light red to red-purple colour with the hexcode of #FFCBDB and RGB code of (255, 203, 219).
- The term ‘pink’ originates from a species of the Dianthus plant that goes by the same name, most likely in reference to its flowers that have a zigzag edge that look like they have been cut with pinking shears.
- Common shades of pink include orchid, cherry blossom, Barbie, cotton candy, pastel, baby, Mountbatten and rose.
- ‘Pink’ was originally referred to as ‘rosy’ until the former word’s use in the late 1600s, while ‘rosy’ originated from the Latin term ‘roseus’.
- During the Medieval and Ancient eras, pink was generally reserved for describing or painting the colour of the skin of people.
- Ham, pigs, roses, sunsets, tulips, galahs, cherry blossoms, berry-flavoured sweets, rose quartz, cotton candy and lipstick are all commonly coloured pink.
- Pink is typically used to symbolise sweet, youth, female, love, innocence, charm, beauty and politeness.
- Due to its base of red and shades of white, pink is useful to attract attention but it is also quite passive and it can have a calming affect, hence its use in some circumstances in some prisons.
- In some countries, pink is strongly associated with young girls, and as such, they are dressed in this colour, and this practice began in the early 1900s, which also saw boys being dressed in blue.
- Pink pigment is typically made with red and white, however, some say pink is not technically a colour due to its absence on the light spectrum, as it is made from violet and red light, located on opposite ends of the spectrum.
Mixing up the browns is quite entertaining.
- Brown is a tertiary colour made by mixing red, yellow and blue/black pigments together, or by blending red and green light.
- The hex code of brown is #964B00 while the RGB code is (150, 75, 0), and the colour sits on a variety of wavelengths approximate to red, orange or yellow.
- Common shades of brown include khaki, beige, chocolate, dirty, sandy, wooden, amber, umber and tan.
- ‘Brown’ comes from the word ‘brún’, which is an old English word meaning ‘dusky’ or ‘dark’.
- Various brown shades were used in depictions of both animal and people in prehistoric paintings and ancient art, and this has been evident in both Egypt and Greece.
- After the Ancient Age, brown was rarely chosen for artworks until later in the 1400s, and after this time the colour became particularly common and its use peaked around the 1600s and 1700s.
- Natural brown colour is often sourced from clay, and two of the shades, umber and sienna, are high in iron oxide which contributes to their colour; while sepia is sourced from certain cuttlefish; and nuts and nut-trees have been used to produce natural dyes in this colour.
- Hair, eye and skin are commonly brown, while other objects commonly found in this colour include chocolate, coffee, dirt, and some military uniforms; while many mammals such as bears and deer, as well as birds, display this colour.
- Brown is often used to symbolise dependability, plainness, humility, a rustic nature, low wealth and peasantry.
- According to surveys conducted across both the United States and Europe, brown is marked by the majority as the least appealing colour.
If a rhyme is what you seek, don’t choose orange or it may reek.
- Orange is a colour and part of the visual spectrum, situated between yellow and red, with a wavelength of 590 to 620 nanometres, a hex code of #FF7F00, and an RGB code of (255, 127, 0).
- In pigments, orange can be made by mixing red and yellow from the RYB colour wheel, while in light, it can be made with higher quantities of red light with the addition of lower quantities of green light.
- The term ‘orange’, first used in the early 1500s, was taken directly from the Old French word ‘orenge’ in reference to the fruit of the same colour and name, while previously the colour was known as ‘ġeolurēad‘ which literally meant ‘yellow-red’.
- Common shades of orange include peach, apricot, carrot, bronze, mango, terracotta, vermillion, burnt and saffron.
- Realgar, orpiment and crocoite are all natural minerals that were commonly used in the past to create an orange colour paint, while saffron and turmeric were plant based materials used to dye cloth and other items.
- Carrots, mangoes, desert sand, pumpkins, apricots, mandarins, marigolds and other flowers, autumn leaves, tigers, peaches, goldfish, and marmalade are things that commonly feature the colour orange.
- Natural objects that appear orange typically have a high content of the chemical carotene, and this can be seen in flowers, leaves, vegetables and fruit that display this colour.
- Orange attracts the eye and is the easiest colour to see in low lighting, low visibility, or next to water, hence its popularity for use on some boats, bridges and life jackets, traffic cones and signage, as well as ‘black box’ flight recorders.
- Orange is commonly used to symbolise health, safety, energy, cheerfulness, positivity, passiveness, loudness, warmth and comfort.
- It is normal for a person to find orange either a highly displeasing colour or a highly pleasing colour; and the colour is commonly used for robes worn by Buddhist monks, and represents a commitment to perfection or illumination.