Have you ever been prescribed amoxicillin?
- Amoxicillin is a medical drug often prescribed to treat bacterial problems or infection.
- Of all antibiotics, amoxicillin is the most frequently used antibiotic that is given to children.
- ‘Amoxicillin’ is also known as ‘amoxycillin’ and ‘amox’, and it is packaged under numerous brand names.
- Amoxicillin was created by The Beecham Group, a pharmaceutical company from the United Kingdom, Europe, in the 1960s, and was first made publically available in 1972.
- Amoxicillin can cause rashes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, dizziness and other reactions, often as a result of an allergic reaction or incorrect use.
- Amoxicillin was the second aminopenicillin belonging to the penicillin family, that was made publicly available in the world, and it contains a β-lactam (beta-lactam) ring in the molecule structure that inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis.
- Amoxicillin is made of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur, in a chemical structure of C16H19N3O5S, and it is listed in the World Health Organistion’s Model List of Essential Medicines as a required medicine for basic healthcare.
- Amoxicillin is most commonly available in the form of a liquid, capsule, chewable tablet, and powder, and it is usually only available by prescription
- Typically, amoxicillin is required to be taken during or within an hour of the consumption of food, and should be taken at the same times daily until it is finished.
- Amoxicillin is often taken by way of mouth, although it can be injected into a vein.
These toothpaste facts are very hygienic.
- Toothpaste is a paste solution or powder used primarily to clean one’s teeth and gums.
- Toothpaste contains plaque and food removing chemicals; helps stop most mouth diseases; and helps to freshen one’s breath.
- Toothpaste typically cleans with a toothbrush aid, which spreads and rubs the paste.
- Toothpaste has a water content of 2o% to 42%, and generally contains fluoride that aids in preventing tooth decay; abrasives that help to remove plaque; and surfactants or detergents that help to clean the teeth.
- Toothpaste is commonly flavoured, often with peppermint, wintergreen or spearmint oil, although unflavoured versions are available, and toothpaste for sensitive teeth is also manufactured.
- Ancient Egyptians are said to have used powdered toothpaste as early as 5000 BC, and Ancient Romans and Greeks enhanced this formula with the addition of abrasives.
- The fluoride content in toothpaste can be poisonous if consumed in large amounts.
- A combination of a variety of ingredients have been used throughout the centuries to clean teeth, including a resin called ‘dragon’s blood’, burnt eggshells, hooves of an ox, pumice, oyster shells, earthenware, burnt snail shells, cuttlefish, brick, charcoal, chalk, burnt bread and honey.
- Modern style toothpaste is based on powders and pastes that were developed in the 1800s and early 1900s, that included the addition of fluoride, baking soda, soap and hydrogen peroxide.
- It is recommended that toothpaste and a toothbrush are used to clean teeth at least twice a day for maximum effect.
Multiple Sclerosis is an unavoidable and often invisible disease.
- Multiple sclerosis is a progressive disease that can affect the spinal cord, optic nerves and brain, brought about by lesions or scars from inflammation in those areas.
- The actual cause of multiple sclerosis is not known at this stage, but it is possibly caused by a virus or bacterial agent combined with a genetic tendency that causes immune problems, and smoking is said to increase the risk.
- Multiple sclerosis damage most likely occurs from the body’s immune cells attacking parts of the central nerve system.
- ‘Multiple sclerosis’ is also known as ‘MS’, ‘disseminated sclerosis’ and ‘encephalomyelitis disseminata’, and ‘sclerosis’ comes from the Greek word ‘skleros’ meaning ‘hard’.
- Those with multiple sclerosis typically have a few symptoms, but not generally numerous, that vary from person to person, and can including fatigue, eye problems, coordination issues, pain, speaking difficulties and malfunctioning sensations.
- There are four different types of multiple sclerosis, from most common to rarest, relapsing-remitting, primary-progressive, secondary-progressive (this has become less common due to new medications) and progressive-relapsing.
- Women are more than two times more likely to be affected by multiple sclerosis than men, while people of European descent are also more susceptible.
- There were roughly 2.5 million people in the world with multiple sclerosis in 2010, with the number of new cases rising by 4% annually.
- Multiple Sclerosis doesn’t have a known cure, although there are some medications and therapies that can stall symptoms of the disease.
- Multiple Sclerosis was first detailed as a disease by French Jean-Martin Charcot, a neurologist, in 1868.
Bibliography: Multiple Sclerosis, 2014, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_sclerosis
What is MS?, 2014, MS Queensland, http://msqld.org.au/about-ms/what-is-ms
Silky smooth talcum powder…
- Talcum powder, also known as ‘talc’ or ‘talc powder’, is a personal hygiene item often used to prevent rashes, and the powder is typically used in baby powder and other cosmetic powders.
- Talcum powder is typically ground talc, a mineral that has many uses, including use in some food products, chalks and lubricants, as well as some paper making processes.
- The talc in talcum powder is found in soapstone and other rocks, and is the softest mineral ever.
- To make talcum powder, talc is extracted from mines, ground, made pure and processed.
- Talcum powder is used to absorb moisture on the body, so it is useful in infant care and in hot and humid climates to prevent chafing and rashes.
- Talcum powder is generally soft, fine-grained, white, grey or pale green in colour, and has a pleasant smell often due to the perfume that is sometimes added.
- With excessive exposure, it is said that talcum powder can cause cancer in some people, although this is strongly debated, and through inhalation of the powder, there is a small chance of lung damage.
- Talcum powder can be substituted with cornstarch, which can be bought in the food section at retailers.
- Talcum powder has been used to prevent the squeakiness of floorboards.
- Talcum powder was first made into a baby powder to help with nappy rash in 1893, by Johnson & Johnson, and the powder was available to the public in 1894.
Talcum Powder, 2013, The Facts About, http://www.thefactsabout.co.uk/content.asp?menuid=23&submenuid=100&pageid=100&menuname=Talcum+powder&menu=sub
What is Talcum Powder?, 2013, WiseGEEK, http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-talcum-powder.htm
Snake antivenom is a human life-saver… but comes from horses!
- ‘Snake antivenom’ is also known as ‘snake antivenin’ and ‘snake antivenene’.
- Snake antivenom is typically a liquid substance that contains antibodies that help destroy snake venom.
- Snake antivenom is created by injecting the snake’s venom, which has been ‘milked’, into an animal, such as a horse, which will create antibodies that are later extracted.
- Snake antivenom should always be given to a snake-bite victim if the snake is poisonous and the venom has spread through the victim’s body.
- Allergic reactions can occur after a patient has been given snake antivenom, but it only occurs in 10% of patients.
Original Source: Unkn0wn
- Snake antivenom should be administered when symptoms such as headaches, pains, loss of consciousness, paralysis and nausea occur, and a snakebite may have occurred.
- Snake antivenom should not be frozen but instead refrigerated, and usually has a storage life of three years.
- Snake antivenom was invented in 1894 by Léon Charles Albert Calmette, a French immunologist.
- Snake antivenom can cost up to $1600 per vial, depending on the type, while a single person with a snake bite can use as many as 20 to 25 vials.
- Snake antivenom can take years to make, and take more years for approval by the World Health Organization (WHO) before the product is usable.
Australian Snake Bites, 2011, University of Sydney, http://www.anaesthesia.med.usyd.edu.au/resources/venom/snakebite.html
Main D, How to Make Antivenom—And Why the World is Running Short, n.d, Popular Mechanics, http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/health/med-tech/how-to-make-antivenom-why-the-world-is-running-out#slide-1
Snake Antivenom, 2013, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snake_antivenom