Battleship

Battleship is a highly intense game that involves… saying coordinates.

  • Battleship is a two player board or paper game that involves destroying your opponent’s various watercrafts using strategic guesswork.
  • ‘Battleship’ is also known as ‘Sea Battle’ and ‘Battleships’, and there are numerous other versions of the game known by other names.
  • A typical game of Battleship is played by placing ‘ships’ on a designated grid and then each player proceeds to find and destroy their opponent’s watercraft by ‘shooting’ it, which is done by calling random grid coordinates.
  • Traditionally a game of Battleship uses five different boats of 5, 4, 3, 3 and 2 squares in length, although watercraft may be different sizes and of different numbers.
  • A variety of different terms are used to name each different watercraft; the Milton Bradley version referring to each as, from the smallest size, a ‘patrol boat’, ‘submarine’, ‘destroyer’, ‘battleship’ and ‘aircraft carrier’.

Battleships, Game, progress, Variation, Gun, Ships, Plastic, Red, Shot, Ten Random Facts, Trivia

  • Battleship was originally known as ‘Salvo’, which is thought to have been first played by Russian officials before the first world war, and a commercial paper and pencil version with the same name was produced in 1931 by the American company Starex Novelty Company.
  • Originally Battleship was played using sheets of paper containing a grid, and a writing tool, although the game company Milton Bradley invented reusable plastic boards and small plastic ships in 1967 for the game, that has since become more popular than the paper version, and other companies have made similar styled versions.
  • The commercial Milton Bradley Battleship game introduced the white and red colour coding used to mark a miss or hit respectively, using small pegs that slot into holes in the grid.
  • Grids sizes vary in each version of the Battleship game, though traditionally it is 10 by 10 squares, labelled with letters on the y-axis and numbers on the x-axis.
  • The first computerised version of Battleship was designed in 1979, and was one of the first games scripted for a computer.
Bibliography:
Battleship (Game), 2015, Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battleship_(game)
Salvo Is New Game With a Nautical Air, 1931,  The Milwaukee Journal, 1 July, p. 8. Google Newspapers

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Concentration

Unfortunately, I’m not too great at Concentration.

  • Concentration is a game requiring observation and memory skills, generally played with face-down cards, and the game involves flipping the cards face-up to reveal a matching pair.
  • The game of ‘Concentration’ is also commonly known as ‘Memory Match’, ‘Match’, ‘Matching Pairs’, ‘Memory’, ‘Pelmanism’, ‘Pexeso’, and ‘Pairs’.
  • When laying out the cards of a Concentration game ready for play, they are often arranged in a neat square pattern or other format to make memorising their location somewhat easier.
  • The basic game play of Concentration is that each player flips over two cards in their turn, and if they match, they collect the pair and have an extra turn, but if the two cards do not match, the cards are turned back over facing down.
  • A good strategy in Concentration is to first flip over the card that you are unsure of, before flipping the card that you are certain of, in case you remember incorrectly.

Concentration, Memory Match, Card Game, Original, Flipped, Set Up, Begin, Trivia, Ten Random Facts

  • There are numerous forms of the game of Concentration, and the cards are often square in shape, although some simply using traditional playing cards, while others use unique printed designs that often contain pictures, however, each set will have the same colour and design on the back of each of the cards.
  • Children generally prefer to play the game of Concentration, and usually do well at the game, although adults do play to test their memorisation skills.
  • On the assumption that each already revealed card is memorised in a game of Concentration, the probability of flipping over a matching card can generally be defined through the formula 1/(t-1-n), where ‘t’ is the remaining cards in play and ‘n’ is the already revealed cards that are still in play.
  • The person with the most pairs at the end of a game of Concentration is deemed the winner, and while the game is typically played competitively with two or more players, it can be enjoyed by a single player aiming to flip the least amount of cards but revealing the most pairs, or to simply test their memory.
  • A Japanese version of the game of Concentration, known as ‘Kai-awase’ and made from painted clam shells, is said to have been played by the wealthy, as early as the 9th century.
Bibliography:
Concentration (game), 2015, Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concentration_(game)

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Trivial Pursuit

Trivial Pursuit is the mightiest contest over the most trivial of things.

  • Trivial Pursuit is a board game that involves traversing across a board with a wheel shaped playing area, to fill six wedge shaped sections of a playing piece that is shaped as a wheel, by correctly answering trivia questions.
  • Trivial Pursuit has six categories in the original game, known as the ‘Genus’ edition, that are listed in order as follows: Geography, Entertainment, History, Art & Literature, Science & Nature, Sports & Leisure, and are marked as blue, pink, yellow, brown, green and orange respectively.
  • In the game of Trivial Pursuit, a player must land on all six squares that feature a wedge, and correctly answer a relevant trivia question to obtain the appropriate colour wedge, to eventually win the game.
  • Trivial Pursuit was jointly created by Chris Haney and Scott Abbott, Canadian newspaper editors, over a game of Scrabble, in late 1979.
  • After two years of research, collaboration and design, the Trivial Pursuit game was placed on the market in late 1981, and although it was unprofitable at first, it quickly became a popular game.

Trivial Pursuit, Trivia, Ten Random Facts, Pursuit, Board, Cards, Pregame

  • In 1984, the sale of 20 million Trivia Pursuit games declared the game a major success, and by 2014, people from all over the world had purchased over 100 million copies.
  • Two to six players can play Trivial Pursuit at one time, although more players can participate by playing the game in teams.
  • An abundance of versions of Trivial Pursuit have been released since the original edition, often appealing to specific interests, some of which are solely cards of questions, although it is thought that some of the more recent editions have much less challenging questions than the original trivia cards.
  • The creators of Trivial Pursuit were taken to court by Fred Worth in 1984, on the belief that they had breached the copyright of Worth’s published trivia books, which had indeed been used among the resources, although the case was lost by Worth due to the judge ruling that trivia was unable to be copyrighted.
  • Some versions of Trivial Pursuit have questions suitable for younger players, while the age recommendation for the original Genus edition is fifteen and above.
Bibliography:
The Highschool Dropout Who Co-created Trivial Pursuit, 2014, Today I Found Out,  http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2014/09/brief-history-trivial-pursuit/
Rees J, Why was Trivial Pursuit, the last great family game, so special?, 2010, Daily Mail Australia, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/debate/article-1283588/Why-Trivial-Pursuit-great-family-game-special.html
Trivial Pursuit, 2015, Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trivial_Pursuit

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The Lion King

The Lion King has left ‘Hakuna Matata!’

  • The Lion King is an 88 minute feature film that tells the tale of a young lion, Simba, heir to the throne, who is blamed for the death of the king, his father, by his uncle Scar, and thus leaving the savannah kingdom in shame.
  • The musical and mostly hand-animated film The Lion King, was designed, produced and animated by Walt Disney and released on June 15, 1994; and the full first scene of the film, ‘The Circle of Life’ song, was used on the film’s promotional trailer, and it was the first Disney trailer to do so.
  • The concept of The Lion King was first generated in 1988 through a discussion between Disney colleagues, that included the then Disney chairman Jeffery Katzenberg, who nurtured and carried the idea, and incorporated some of his personal history into the original story.
  • The original The Lion King script titled King of Beast and King of Jungle during the early stages, was written in late 1988 to early 1989 by Linda Woolverton, and it was significantly rewritten when Don Hahn was promoted as chief producer, because he perceived it to be somewhat messy and without a defined theme.
  • During the production of The Lion King, there were a number of significant staff changes due to disagreements over the film which caused some to leave, and the final directors were Rob Minkoff and Roger Allers.
The Lion King, Film, Poster, Wallpaper, Ten Random Facts, Walt Disney
The Lion King
Image courtesy of Walt Disney
  • Many Disney animators were hesitant about, or refrained from working on The Lion King‘s animation, as Pocahontas, another Disney feature film being produced at the same time, was thought to become more profitable.
  • The final animation sequences of The Lion King were required to be created at the animators homes, after the horrific Northridge earthquake of 1994 in California, that rendered the Disney studios unusable.
  • The Lion King has grossed almost $987.5 million across its release and rereleases (2002 and 2011, the latter in 3D), and earnt the title of 1994’s highest grossing film, and as of the end of 2014 it was the 3rd highest grossing animation film ever.
  • The Lion King received Academy Awards for both the Best Original Score and Best Original Song ‘Can You Feel the Love Tonight’, as well as Golden Globe awards for the Best Motion Picture -Music or Comedy and Best Original Score.
  • A musical production for the stage, adapted from The Lion King film, debuted in the United States in 1997 in Minnesota’s Minneapolis, and it was highly successful, leading to various adaptations throughout the world, while the film itself has spawned two sequels.
Bibliography:
“The Lion King”, 1994, The Lion King Unofficial, http://www.lionking.org/text/FilmNotes.html
The Lion King, 2015, Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Lion_King

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Whitney Houston

“Loneliness comes with life” – Whitney Houston

  • Whitney Houston was a very successful pop and gospel singer, actress, and model, and through her achievements, she became one of the primary contributors in opening up music industry opportunities to ‘black’ women.
  • On the 9 August, 1963, in New Jersey’s Newark, in the United States, Whitney Houston was born to African American parents, and was named Whitney Elizabeth Houston.
  • Whitney Houston is listed among the top-selling music artists in history, with 170 to 200 million records sold worldwide, and was recognised as the most awarded female artist by the Guinness World Records in 2009, and in her lifetime is said to have won up to 600 or more awards, including two Emmy Awards, six Grammys and 30 Billboards, and has continued to accumulate awards since her death.
  • Each of the ten albums, including six studio produced albums, recorded by Whitney Houston, has received a high level of recognition, some reaching the honours of diamond.
  • In her life, Whitney Houston had the honour of featuring the most number one singles on the Billboard in a row, with seven, while her 1985 self-titled debut album was the biggest selling debut album ever (at the time) for a female.
Whitney Houston, Singer, White, Traditional, Frizzy, Ten Random Facts, White,  Musician, Legend
Whitney Houston
Image courtesy of tm_10001/Flickr
  • Whitney Houston’s first performances were in her local Baptist church choir, while as a young teenager she sometimes accompanied her mother, famous gospel singer Emily ‘Cissy’ Houston, who sung at local night clubs, and in 1977 and 1978 she was backup singing.
  • During Whitney Houston’s later teenage years she was a successful model, and later signed to music company Arista Records, in 1983, after rejecting numerous offers due to school commitments.
  • Whitney Houston became addicted to drugs in the 1990s, which became noticeable in her appearance and performances, and negatively affected her career; and she died on 11 February, 2012, in a hotel bathroom in California’s Beverly Hills, in the US, most likely due to accidental drowning, possibly from excessive drug use.
  • Whitney Houston was married to singer and rapper Robert Barisford “Bobby” Brown from 1992 to 2007, and had a daughter named Bobbi Kristina Brown in 1993.
  • Whitney Houston had a significant acting career, featuring in several films including a leading role in her first film The Bodyguard in 1992, and The Preacher’s Wife in 1996.
Bibliography:
Whitney Houston, 2015, Bio.com, http://www.biography.com/people/whitney-houston-9344818
Whitney Houston, 2015, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whitney_Houston

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                  Whitney Houston

Richie Benaud

“My mantra is: put your brain into gear and if you can add to what’s on the screen then do it, otherwise shut up.” – Richie Bernaud.

  • Richie Benaud was a famous Australian, well known for his cricketing career, both as a player and a high-profile commentator.
  • Richie Benaud was born on 6 October, 1930, in New South Wales’ Penrith, in Australia, with the name ‘Richard Benaud’, and he married twice, divorced once, and had two children.
  • In the game of cricket, Richie Benaud batted and bowled using his right hand, bowling with the leg-spin technique, and his father was a noteworthy cricket player, who passed on much of his cricket knowledge to his son.
  • Richie Benaud first ventured into more competitive cricket in 1948, when he was selected to join the New South Wales’ youth team, and his first Test match was in 1952.
  • Early in Richie Benaud’s career, in three separate incidents, he suffered a significant injury to his thumb, and sustained serious injuries to his skull and face.
Richie Benaud, 1956, Young, Old, Cricket, Ten Random Facts, Wikimedia Commons, Australia
Young Richie Benaud
Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons
  • Richie Bernaud’s best batting performance in test cricket was in 1957, with 122 runs; he ran almost 14,000 runs during his career, and he captained the Australian Test cricket team from 1958 to 1964.
  • Richie Benaud retired from professional cricket in 1964 and became a commentator for the United Kingdom’s BBC and Channel 4, and Australia’s Channel Nine.
  • Richie Benaud died at age 84, on the 10 April, 2015, after being diagnosed and treated for skin cancer in late 2014, and having suffered injuries from a car crash in 2013.
  • Richie Benaud was a notable cricket commentator and journalist for almost 50 years, and he usually wore a signature light coloured jacket, in shades of white, cream or beige when he was commentating.
  • In 1961 Richie Benaud became an Officer of the Order of British Empire (OBE); he was a recipient of a Logie Award in 1999, for Most Outstanding Sports Broadcaster; and Benaud was inducted into three halls of fame in his lifetime.
Bibliography:
Andrew McGarry, Richie Benaud, 2015, ABC News, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-04-10/richie-benaud-dead/6009202
Richie Benaud, 2015, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richie_Benaud

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