Igneous Rock

There are many types of rocks and many groups. Igneous rocks are up!

  • Igneous rocks are formed in molten magma.
  • There are two types of igneous rock. One type of igneous rock is formed in the surface of the earth while the other type of rock forms on the crust, because of the cool air.
  • Igneous rock is also formed when magma cools and crystallises into a rock formation.
  • Most of the earth’s crust is made out of igneous rock.
  • Many mountains are made out of igneous rocks. Also, many mountains with lots of surrounding igneous rock suggests that the mountain could be a volcano.

 Igneous Rock, Granite, Free Digital Photos, Free Digital Photos

Igneous Rock
Image courtesy of Antpkr/ Free Digital Photos
  • ‘Igneous’ comes from the latin phrase ‘made from fire’.
  • Earth’s moon is made out of igneous rocks.
  • Many roads are made from crushed igneous rock .
  • The igneous rock called pumice is the lightest rock on earth.
  • Igneous rocks contain many minerals that help plants grow.
Rocks & Minerals 2004, Dorling Kindersley, United States
Stewart, M 2002, Igneous Rocks, Heinemann Library, Great Britian



All light is bright and so are these ten facts!

  • Light comes in two forms of energy, brightness and heat. Light also has two groups, natural light, like stars and fires, and artificial lights, like electric bulbs and lamps.
  • The sun’s light travels 299,260 km/186,000 miles per second which means it takes 8 minutes to reach Earth.
  • A shadow forms when a ray of light shines on a solid object.
  • Transparent materials allow light to travel through it, while translucent materials let a little light through. Opaque materials let no light through.
  • When a ray of light touches a shiny or polished surface, the ray bounces back.

 light, sun, ten random facts


  • When light travels through a fine droplet of water or a prism, a rainbow forms.
  • Light rays contain colour. These colours are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. Light’s primary colours are red, green and blue (RGB).
  •  Each wavelength of light is smaller than your hair.
  • The longest wavelength, red, has the least energy while the shortest wavelength, violet, has the most energy.
  • Light rays bounce off colours of its same colour type, while other light rays are absorbed when they touch a colour that is not its same colour type.
Devonshire, H 1991, Light, Franklin Watts, Great Britian
Herman, G 2004, Color Day Relay, Scholastic, USA

Fishpond: The Illuminating World of Light with Max Axiom, Super Scientist (Graphic Science) The Nature of Light and Colour in the Open Air (Dover Books on Earth Sciences)           Amazon: 

Crude Oil

This black resource found in the Earth is very interesting so I’ve got 10 facts about crude oil.

  • Crude oil seeps to the surface of the Earth and gathers in pits.
  • Crude oil is naturally formed by squeezing and heating up the remains of animals and tiny sea creatures into a liquid.
  • Crude oil is usually only found where there are layers of sedimentary rocks since these rocks have been formed like crude oil.
  • To collect the crude oil, an oil driller would use a large drill to dig oil wells.
  • Upon the collection of the crude oil, it is necessary to take all the water and oxygen out of it.

Oil Rig, Ten Random Facts, Sea, Free Digital Photos

Oil Rig
Image courtesy of Suwatpo/ Free Digital Photos
  • Crude oil is stored in a tank with a bobbing lid, to stop any gases that could damage or even make the crude oil explode upon contact.
  • To make crude oil usable, you must make it float better, make the oil burn better, make it not dangerous and remove the bad smell.
  • The Middle East contains the most crude oil in the world.
  • Crude oil can be found at sea so floating cranes are needed at deep areas.
  • Crude oil contains carbon and hydrogen, hydrocarbon.
Cranfield, J & Buckman, D 1976, Oil, Wayland Publishers, UK

Dispersion of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products in Freshwater Powering Planet Earth: Energy Solutions for the Future


Tornadoes are very destructive winds that cause heaps of damage! Here are ten more facts about tornadoes.

  • About 1,200 tornadoes are seen every year in the USA.
  • The winds at the bottom of a tornado spins faster than the winds at the top.
  • Tornadoes have never been spotted in Antarctica.
  • Tornadoes form when a downdraft of moist and cool air mixes with an updraft of warm air.
  • An average tornado only travels a few miles before it dies out.

Tornado, Natural Disaster, Earth, Ten Random Facts, Clker

Image courtesy of Jhallman/ Clker.com (Broken Link)
  • The wind speed inside a tornado is about 110 mph/117 km (per hour).
  • A tornado’s colour changes, depending where you view it or what the tornado sucks up. This means a tornado could be white, red, blue, brown, grey, orange, yellow and even invisible.
  • Tornadoes may not always be visible. If a tornado is visible, the tornado would have low air pressure produced by high wind speeds that mixes the humid air into clouds.
  • Tornadoes are most common in Spring and least common in Winter. This is because Spring produces stronger winds while Winter produces the weakest.
  • There are many types of tornadoes including waterspouts, dust devils, snow devils, fire wheels and the typical cyclone.
Schreiber, A 2000, Twister Trouble, Scholastic, USA
Tornado 20 September 2012, Wikipedia, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tornado>

Surviving Tornadoes (Children's True Stories

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